The heavily made-up look of the 1920s was a reaction to the demure, feminine Gibson girl of the pre-war period.In the 1920s, an international beauty culture was forged, and society increasingly focused on novelty and change. Fashion trends influenced theater, films, literature, and art.
Women also found a new need to wear more make-up, as a skewed postwar sex ratio created a new emphasis on sexual beauty.Additionally, as women began to enter the professional world, publications such as the French Beauty Industry encouraged women to wear makeup to look their best while competing with men for employment.
Lipstick became widely popular after Maurice Levy’s 1915 invention of the metal lipstick container.It was available in salve, liquid, and stick forms,and long-lasting, indelible stains were the most popular.Lip pomade, also called lip gloss, was later invented by Max Factor, Sr. in an effort to provide a glamorous appearance to actress’ lips on film. Soon after, ‘natural’ lip gloss was created, which used bromo acid to create a red effect as it reacted with the wearer’s skin.Finally, flavored lipstick was also popular, with the most popular variety being cherry.
In 1916, Max Factor began selling eyeshadow and eyebrow pencils. This was the first time such products were available outside of the movie industry. Max continued to be a driving force behind make-up until his death in 1938. In 1991, his company became a part of the Procter & Gamble family.